Located in South Asia, India is a sub-tropical, culturally varied country, famous for its diversity in culture, language, traditions and extraordinary climatic variations. India is not only the largest democracy in the world but also the fastest growing economy in the world.
India is the most populous democracy in the world. Divided into three parts, India’s governing body consists of the Legislative (The parliament), the Executive (The government) and the Judiciary (The supreme court). Installed in the heart of India, the capital, Delhi, The Parliament of India is divided into two houses the upper house (Council of States) and the lower house (House of People), while The Executive comprises of The President, Vice President and the Prime Minister. The judicial sector is composed of all the courts including the Supreme Court.
Geography & Climate
Famed for its multifarious climate, India has pleasant atmosphere throughout the year. The climate in the country varies from region to region, In the South, the climate is mostly tropical since Southern India is a peninsula. It gets sweltering in the summers and chilly in the winters. In the west lies the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. Northern India is dominated by the fertile Gangetic plains and the mighty Himalaya’s. Western India has the Thar desert and the Rann of Kutch. Monsoon in the country lasts for about 4 months with moderate rainfall.
India is one of the 17 Megadiverse countries and holds 6% of all amphibians, 7.9% of all reptilian, 8.6% of all mammalian, and 13.7% of all avian species. One can find high endemism of plants and animals in India, an astonishing number of 33% of plants are endemic to India while some animals naturally chose India to be their residing habitat, they include animals like Black Buck, Asiatic lion, One-Horned Rhino, Nilgiri Tahr, Snow Leopard and The Bengal tiger which also is the national animal of this wildlife rich country. Among the extremes of this exotic country lie the moist deciduous Sal forests of eastern India, the dry deciduous Teak forests of central and southern India, and the Babul-dominated thorn forests of the central Deccan and Western Gangetic plains.
Diversity in Languages
It is interesting to note that India is the 2nd largest English speaking country in the world, but apart from the business language, people in India are well-versed in their native languages which they tend to speak in their homes. India is the second largest geographical place with diversity in languages after the African continent. Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages are the two main languages, about 69% of Indians speak Indo-Aryan languages, and about 26% speak a Dravidian language. “Hindi” is the official language which unites the whole country together. Hindi is spoken by 41% of the population as a common language to communicate. There is an unending list of languages which include Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, Bihari and many more. The Constitution of India recognises 23 languages as official languages of the nation.
The Indian cultural history stretches over 5,000 years. From the age of the Vedas which laid the foundations Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature, numerous of those beliefs still exist today such as dharma, karma, yoga, and moksha. India is well-known for its exceptional diversity in religions with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism in uneven distribution.
Art & Architecture
The history of India is richly coloured in its tapestry through talented hands which have given the country its exquisite monuments and heritage sites which every Indian has pride on. The Science of construction" or “architecture” anciently referred as Vastu Shastra which explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings was scrupulously followed in the older times and to some extent is still believed by the orthodox Indians. Speaking of architecture, The Taj Mahal is world-renowned for its aesthetic beauty and brilliant artwork and listed among the 7 wonders of the world.
Indian cuisine reflects a 5,000 year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the subcontinent, leading to diversity of flavours. Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious, cultural choices and traditions. Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations, and colonialism have played a role in introducing certain foods to the country. Some Indian dishes are common in more than one region of India. Indian food is a divine blessing to the taste buds. It is a well-known fact that Indian food attracts a lot of tourists and food lovers to India because of India’s wide range of spices which thereby acknowledging the palatability of the cuisine.